Step by step process:

Click the image to view the step by step video. 

What is the process used for Monoclonal Antibodies?

First they take samples of tumor cells and process them to find antigens that are located on the surface of that cell to which the antibodies bind and eventually kill the cancer.

In order for this process to work, a large quantity of antigens that are unique to the tumor cells must be present. Plus the antigen should be different enough from those that are elaborated by normal cells to provoke an antibody response.

The antibodies made by this method can be used to  kill cancer cells, or used as a carriers of other substances used either for treatment or diagnostic purposes. Chemotherapeutic agents can be attached to monoclonal antibodies to deliver high amounts of  toxic substances directly a tumor cells. The approach is less toxic and highly effective than conventional chemo because it reduces the harmful agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have proven helpful in treatment such as leukemia and lymphoma. As well as the development for the use against solid tumors. These antibodies have multiple potential applications such as nuclear imaging, surgical mapping, and much more. 

                                                                                                                     (Citation 1)

"Thousands of mouse monoclonal antibodies are  used to diagnose everything from AIDS to pregnancy and much more." 

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Why do scientists use mice? 

Mice were used for monoclonal antibodies as a tool to study the body's immune system. The production of monoclonal antibodies help to allow highly specific antibodies to have reproducible research measurements. The applications of monoclonal antibodies included finding viruses, purifying drugs, testing pregnancy, the different kinds of cancers, blood clots and many more; these application happen to be during the early discoveries of these antibodies. 

(Citation 29)

The Different Antibodies?  

Conjugated MAbs (monoclonal antibodies) can be referred to as taggedlabeled, or loaded antibodies. They are divided into groups depending on their function: 

  • Monoclonal antibodies with radioactive particles known as radiolabeled and therapy is known as radioimmunotherapy (RIT).
  • Monoclonal antibodies with chemotherapy drugs attached are known as chemolabeled.
  • Monoclonal antibodies that link on to toxins are called immunotoxins.

The picture above is one of the many ELISA Test screening, Screening is perhaps one of the most crucial aspect to successfully generating monoclonal antibodies.

Titration ELISA for Test-bleeds:

"Following the 5-week immunization schedule, test-bleeds of each mouse are tested using the standard titration ELISA assay. ELISA titers and IgG-vs-IgM isotyping are determined by screening each sample in two sets of replicates: one set with an anti-IgG secondary antibody and one set with an anti-IgM secondary antibody. By monitoring both the IgG and IgM levels they are able to assess when secondary isotype switching has occurred and determine the optimal time for fusion. This process is extremely important to get the highest possible affinity antibodies and to limit the number of IgM monoclonals produced during fusion."

(Citation 15)

 What is ELISA?

Standard monoclonal antibody development service includes ELISA testing to help determine which mice are ready for fusion and ELISA screening of hybridomas to determine the best cells to expand forward with full characterization and sub-cloning. ELISA results are provided for researchers after a test bleed and are meant to track the progression of a animal/person's immune response to antigens. Completing the screening of ELISA helps to select final clones for immortalization.


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